These stoppages, referred to as disfluencies, are often excessive and characterized by specific types of disfluency.
See also academic content standards. Academic Content Standards Academic content standards are developed by state departments of education to demonstrate what they expect all students to know and be able to do in the core content areas.
Fluency disorders to NCLBELL students "will meet the same challenging State academic content and student academic achievement standards as all children are expected to meet.
Academic English The English language ability required for academic achievement in context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. Accommodation for English Language Learners Adapting language Fluency disorders or written to make it more understandable to second language learners.
Accommodation For Students With Disabilities Techniques and materials that allow individuals with LD to complete school or work tasks with greater ease and effectiveness.
Examples include spellcheckers, tape recorders, and expanded time for completing assignments. Accuracy The ability to recognize words correctly. Adequate Yearly Progress AYP An individual state's measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards.
Affective Filter The affective filter is a metaphor that describes a learner's attitudes that affect the relative success of second language acquisition. Negative feelings such as lack of motivation, lack of self-confidence and learning anxiety act as filters that hinder and obstruct language learning.
This term is associated with linguist Stephen Krashen's Monitor Model of second language learning. Affix Part of word that is "fixed to" either the beginnings of words prefixes or the endings of words suffixes.
The word disrespectful has two affixes, a prefix dis- and a suffix -ful. Age Equivalent Score In a norm-referenced assessment, individual student's scores are reported relative to those of the norming population.
This can be done in a variety of ways, but one way is to report the average age of people who received the same score as the individual child.
Thus, an individual child's score is described as being the same as students that are younger, the same age, or older than that student e. Alphabetic Principle The basic idea that written language is a code in which letters represent the sounds in spoken words.
Americans With Disabilities Act ADA A federal law that gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion.
It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.
For more information, go to The Americans with Disabilities Act. Analogy-based Phonics In this approach, students are taught to use parts of words they have already learned to read and decode words they don't know. They apply this strategy when the words share similar parts in their spellings, for example, reading screen by analogy to green.
Students may be taught a large set of key words for use in reading new words. Analytic Phonics In this approach, students learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce sounds in isolation. AMAOs indicate how much English language proficiency reading, writing, speaking, listening, and comprehension children served with Title III funds are expected to gain each year.
Annual increases in the number or percentage of children making progress in learning English. Annual increases in number or percentage of children attaining English proficiency.
See also formative assessment and summative assessment. Assistive Technology Equipment that enhances the ability of students and employees to be more efficient and successful.
For more information, go to "LD Topics:Do you have a child who finds it difficult to speak clearly or understand what you’re saying? Does a strong international accent limit your confidence or career opportunities? Journal of Fluency Disorders is included in Medline. Now recognized as the only publication devoted specifically to fluency, the Journal of Fluency Disorders provides comprehensive coverage of clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects of stuttering, including the latest remediation techniques.
We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Diagnostic criteria for Stuttering (DSM IV -TR) A. Disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech (inappropriate for the individual's age), characterized by frequent occurrences of . Making fun of a person with a fluency disorder is a form of bullying.
It is destructive and may take away the person’s desire to communicate. Join a support group. Many fluency disorders, such as stuttering, have support groups.
Spending time with other families coping with fluency disorders can be helpful. The Stuttering Home Page is dedicated to providing information about stuttering and other fluency disorders for both consumers and professionals who work with people who stutter.