Hunting and Gathering Societies For most of their existence humans obtained food by hunting and gathering.
When people learned to farm, they built permanent dwellings Paleolithic man made one of the most important discoveries that humans have ever made: When the function of the seed was learned, humans became farmers. This sounds relatively simple, but not until the Industrial Revolution would there be as revolutionary a change in the social and economic organization of human beings.
This transition from hunters and gatherers to farmers is called the Neolithic Revolution, and it made civilization itself possible. See short Video on the discovery of farming. About 10, years ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and more complex economic and social systems.
Thousands of years ago, drought came to the Middle East. The large animals hunters depended on died out or migrated, forcing some people to settle down wherever they found a secure source of water.
The nomadic way of life ended and human beings became farmers. The practice of agriculture transformed the social and economic characteristics of human societies. It also changed the nature of the crops that were farmed.
See a helpful video about this HERE. You should read everything with this basic question in mind. Agriculture was discovered independently at many different locations in the world.
It then diffused into other areas as the practice was learned and adopted by others. Agriculture seems to have been discovered independently at several locations in the world see mapthen diffused to different areas. It is important to note that not everyone adopted agriculture.
Some societies remained hunter-gatherers and others remained pastoral. Pastoral nomads were somewhat of a transitional group between hunter-gatherers and neolithic farmers. They depended on herds of animals which they kept and followed, a lifestyle known as Pastoralism.
Because their migrations were connected to the needs of animal herds, pastoral nomads moved in patterns based on climate. Agriculture was probably discovered by pastoral nomads who, upon returning to a location from the previous year, found that spilled seeds they had gathered germinated into crops.
Africa, Europe and Asia all had people who practiced pastoralism. Cereal grains were more durable in storage than other agricultural products. As you can see from the map above, agriculture was discovered at different times by different people.
The crops people cultivated depended on what was indigenous to their location. Professor Jared Diamond has pointed out that the nature of edible plants that grew in individual places had a profound effect upon the development of human societies.
For example, regions that grew cereal grains had an advantage over those that grew less durable or nutritious foods.
Cereal grains rice, barley, wheat and corn produced a harvest rich in carbohydrates and other nutrients. They were easy to dry and store. In storage, cereal grains would not spoil as quickly as legumes or yams.
As a result, societies that cultivated these crops were more likely to produce surpluses of food. Irrigation diverts and accelerates the natural flow of water across land. It necessarily causes erosion.Over 60 percent of the world’s working poor works in agriculture.
Farming creates more jobs, beginning with farmers, and continuing with farm equipment makers, food processing plants, transportation, infrastructure and manufacturing. Even thought farming is harder than hunting and gathering, there are many advantages in farming.
Farmers can produce more food then hunters and gatherers can gather. Farming lets people have a steady food supply all year long. Before farming, people lived by hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants. When supplies ran out, these hunter-gatherers moved on. Farming meant that people did not need to travel to find food.
Over time, these selection pressures produced changes in the crop and seeds that are characteristic of domesticated crops.
These changes (referred to as domestication markers) are most pronounced when comparisons are made between the domesticated crop and its wild relatives. The Advantages of Farming over Hunting and Gathering (7 schwenkreis.com) Farmers can produce a lot of food. They have a surplus so they can have a steady balance of food.
These five types of societies include hunting and gathering, pastoral and horticultural, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial societies. Groups have a significant degree of influence over people’s attitudes and actions.
The Asch and to pass these advantages along to their descendants. As a result, simple equality began to give.